Congratulations on your pregnancy! Now you can sit back, relax and put your feet up for the next 9 months, right? Not so fast! Attitudes and beliefs about prenatal exercise have drastically changed over the past 20 years. No longer is pregnancy viewed as a time to sit, watch TV and eat chocolate.
These days, moms can actually maintain and improve their fitness levels while pregnant. And exercise provides many numerous benefits such as a boost in your mood and energy levels, helps you sleep better, helps prevent excess weight gain and increases your stamina and muscle strength. You cannot lose!
Regular exercise during your pregnancy can improve not only your heart health and boost your energy, but also improves your overall health. Maintaining a healthy body and healthy weight gain can help reduce common pregnancy complaints and discomforts like lower back pain, fatigue and constipationand can even help with shortening your time during labor by strengthening your endurance.
First, consult your health care provider to check that it is okay to exercise. If you have been participating in a regular exercise regimen and are having a healthy pregnancy, there should not be a problem continuing with your regimen in moderation. You may have to modify your exercise according to your trimester of pregnancy.
If you have not participated in an exercise regimen three times a week before getting pregnant, do not jump into a new, strenuous activity. Start out with a low-intensity activity and gradually move to a higher activity level.
Moderate exercise during pregnancy "may give your baby a healthier start"
The best type of exercise during pregnancy:
·Increases your heart rate steadily and improves your heart circulation
·Keeps you flexible and limber
·Manages your weight gain by burning calories
·Prepares your muscles for labor and birth
·Will not cause you to push your body too hard.
Research shows that healthy pregnant women who exercise during their pregnancy may:
·Have less risk of preterm labor and birth
·Have a shorter labor process
·Be less likely to need pain relief
·Recover from childbirth faster.
Regular, moderate exercise not only gives you a healthier pregnancy, it may also give your baby a healthier start. Research shows that when pregnant women exercise, their developing babies have a much lower heart rate. Babies of active moms may also have a healthier birth weight.
Experts recommend that you exercise for 30 minutes a day, on most days. Most exercises are safe to perform during pregnancy, as long as you exercise with caution and do not overdo it.
Your pregnancy exercise regimen should strengthen and condition your muscles. Always begin by warming up for 5 minutes and stretching for 5 minutes. Following your choice of exercise, finish your regimen with 5-10 minutes of gradually slower exercise that ends with gentle stretching.
Use common sense:
·Avoid exercise that involves lying on your stomach or flat on your back after the first trimester of pregnancy
·Stay well hydrated and drink plenty of fluids before, during and after you exercise
·Avoid overheating and humidity, especially during the first trimester when the fetus is undergoing its most important growth and development
·Stop exercising if you feel fatigued, develop persistent pain or experience any vaginal bleeding; check with your health care provider if regular contractions occur more than 30 minutes after exercise (possibly a sign of pre-term labor)
·Avoid heavy weightlifting and any activities that require straining
·Avoid exposure to extremes of air pressure, as in high altitude exercise (unless you are accustomed to it) or scuba diving
· Do not increase the intensity of your workout beyond pre-pregnancy intensity level
·Eat small, frequent meals throughout the day. Sedentary pregnant women need about 3,000 calories per day during the second and third trimesters; if you are physically active, your caloric needs will be higher to make up for the calories burned up during your exercise regimen.
The safest and most productive activities to perform during your pregnancy are brisk walking, swimming, indoor stationary cycling, prenatal yoga and low-impact aerobics (taught by a certified aerobics instructor).
These activities carry little risk of injury, benefit your entire body, and can be continued until the birth of your baby. Other activities such as jogging can be done in moderation. You might want to choose exercises or activities that do not require great balance or coordination, especially later in your pregnancy.
Basic exercise guidelines:
·Wear loose-fitting, comfortable clothes, as well as a good support bra
·Choose shoes that are designed for the type of exercise you choose. Proper shoes are your best protection against injury
·Exercise on a flat, level surface to avoid injury
·Finish eating at least one hour before exercising
·Get up slowly and gradually to prevent dizziness
·Never exercise to the point of exhaustion. If you cannot talk normally while exercising, you are probably over exerting yourself, and you should slow down your activity.
Physical changes that might affect your ability to exercise
Physical changes during your pregnancy will create extra demands on your body. Keeping in mind the changes listed below, remember you need to listen to your body and adjust your activities or exercise regimen as necessary.
·Your developing baby and other internal changes require more oxygen and energy
·Hormones (relaxin) produced during pregnancy cause the ligaments that support your joints to stretch, increasing the risk of injury
·The extra weight and the uneven distribution of your weight alters your center of gravity. The extra weight also puts stress on joints and muscles in the lower back and pelvic area, and makes it easier for you to lose your balance.
If you have a medical condition, such as asthma, heart disease, hypertension or diabetes, exercise may not be advisable. Again, consult with your health care provider before beginning any exercise regimen.
Exercise may also be harmful if you have a pregnancy-related condition such as:
·Vaginal bleeding or spotting
·Low placenta (low-lying or placenta previa)
·Threatened or history of recurrent miscarriage
·Previous premature births or history of early labor
Talk with your health care provider before beginning an exercise program. Your health care provider can also suggest personal exercise guidelines, based on your medical history.
The top 5 best pregnancy exercises
Even if you have never exercised a day in your life, a quick stroll around the neighborhood is a great way to start. You will get a cardiovascular workout without too much impact on your knees and ankles, and you can do it almost anywhere and at any time throughout the entire 9 months. Walk with your partner, walk your dog, everybody benefits!
As your baby grows, your center of gravity will change, and you can lose your sense of balance and coordination. Walk on smooth surfaces; watch out for potholes, rocks and other obstacles. Remember to wear supportive sneakers.
If ever there was an ideal exercise for during pregnancy, it is swimming. There is zero chance of falling on your abdomen and injuring your baby.
Exercising in water gives you a better range of motion without putting pressure on your joints. Even in your ninth month, you can swim, walk, do aerobics or dance in the water. Water aerobics is great cardio. Have fun!
While swimming, choose a stroke that feels comfortable and that does not strain or hurt your neck, shoulders, or back muscles. For example, the breaststroke is a good choice because you do not have to rotate your torso or belly. Use the kickboard to help strengthen your leg and buttock muscles.
Do be careful when entering the water. Use the railing for balance and to prevent slipping. Avoid diving or jumping into the water as this could cause too much abdominal impact. To avoid overheating, extremely warm pools, steam rooms, hot tubs, and saunas are a no-no!
Take a load off your legs! Cycling on a stationary bike is generally safe even if you are just starting an exercise program.
Cycling is a beneficial way to increase your heart rate without stressing your joints. As your belly grows, you can raise the handlebars for greater comfort. The American Pregnancy Association states that riding a stationary bike is safe during pregnancy. The bike can help to support your weight, and although your changing center of gravity makes you more likely to fall on a regular bicycle, a stationary bike reduces that chance.
Prenatal yoga classes keep your joints limber and help you maintain flexibility. Yoga strengthens your muscle system, stimulates blood circulation, and helps you relax. You can use these techniques from your yoga class to stay calm and have a little more control during the labor process.
As your pregnancy progresses, skip positions that really challenge your balance. In your second trimester, steer clear of poses that require you to lie flat on your back - as your baby grows, and your uterus gets heavier, it can place too much pressure on major veins and arteries and decrease the blood flow to your heart.
Also, be careful not to overstretch. Pregnant women produce more relaxin, a hormone that increases flexibility and joint mobility, it is important to know your limits and hold back slightly when stretching.
What is the difference between high and low impact aerobics? Overall, aerobic exercise strengthens your heart and lungs and helps maintain muscle tone. Low-impact aerobics excludes jumping, high kicks, leaps, or fast running. You keep one foot on the ground at all times, so you limit the amount of stress on your joints and maintain balance.
This type of aerobic exercise will also protect your pelvic floor. Too much jumping up and down and bouncing can weaken your pelvic floor muscles and increase your chances of urine leakage.
Consider joining an aerobics class geared for pregnant women. This way you can enjoy the company of other pregnant women and have the expertise of an instructor that is trained to modify exercises for pregnant clients as your belly grows.
If you have already joined a regular aerobics class, notify your instructor so they can modify or advise elimination of certain movements and poses that would not be beneficial for you and your baby.
Stop exercising and consult your health care provider if you:
·Have abdominal, chest, or pelvic pain
·Notice an absence of fetal movement
·Feel faint, dizzy, nauseous, or light-headed
·Feel cold or clammy
·Have vaginal bleeding
·Have a sudden gush of fluid from the vagina or a trickle of fluid that leaks steadily (when your bag of "water" breaks, also called a rupture of the amniotic membrane)
·Notice an irregular or rapid heartbeat
·Have sudden swelling in your ankles, hands, face, or experience calf pain
·Have increased shortness of breath
·Have persistent contractions that continue after rest
·Have difficulty walking.
Regular exercise will keep you and your baby healthy while staying fit and enjoying your pregnancy!
Written by Angel J. Miller, MSN, CNM, certified nurse-midwife, Midwifery Service Director, Washington, D.C. Area and co-author: Nine Months In ~ Nine Months Out
Nine Months In ~ Nine Months Out, Miller, Angel, Kelly, Stacia, Kirkbride, Shelia, Matthews, Corry, Sterling, Va, Ironcutter Media, 2011.
WebMD Pregnancy: exercise during pregnancy, accessed 27 February 2015.
Kids Health Pregnancy and baby, accessed 27 February 2015.
Mayo Clinic Pregnancy and exercise: baby, let's move! accessed 27 February 2015.